Environmental Monitoring

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Sections: Environmental Monitoring | Air Sampling | Surface Sampling

Environmental Monitoring – General

  • De Abreu, CS et al. 2004. Environmental Monitoring: a Correlation Study Between Viable and Nonviable Particles In Clean Rooms. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 58:45-53.
  • Hussong, D and RE Madsen. 2004. Analysis of Environmental Microbiology Data From Cleanroom Samples. Pharm Technol. Aseptic Proc:10-15.
  • Faure, O., et al. 2002. 8 Yr Surveillance of Environmental Fungal Contamination In Hospital Operating Rooms and Haematological Units. J Hosp Infect. 50:155-160.
  • Akers, JE and J Agalloco. 2001. Environmental Monitoring: Myths and Misapplications. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 55:176-184.
  • Nagarkar, Parag. 2001. Oligophilic Bacteria As Tools to Monitor Aseptic Pharmaceutical Production Units. Appl Environ Microbiol. 67:1371-1374.
  • PDA. 2001. Tech Report #13 (Revised): Fundamentals of an Environmental Monitoring Program. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 55:1-36.
  • Wilson, J. 2001. Environmental Monitoring: Misconceptions and Misapplications. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 55:185-190.
  • Dojka, M.. 2000. Expanding the Known Diversity & Environ Distribution of an Uncultured Phylogenetic Div of Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 66:1617-1621.
  • Anon. 1998. Keeping Contamination Out of the Cleanroom. Manufact Chem. Mar:25-27.
  • Akers, Jim; Charlie Moore. 1998. The Need for Pragmatism. Life Sciences. Jan:23-30.
  • Cundell, Anthony; Robert Bean, et al. 1998. Statistical Analysis of Environmental Monitoring Data: Does a Worst Case Time for Monitoring Clean Rooms Exist?. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 52:326-330.
  • Dixon, Annie; Richard Matthews. 1998. Cooperation Leads to Rapid Development of Global Cleanroom Standards. Med Device Diagnost Indust. Feb:81-84.
  • Marshall, V et al. 1998. Comparative Mold and Yeast Recovery Analysis (The Effect of Differing Incubation Temp Ranges and Growth Media). PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 52:165-170.
  • Satter, S.E.. 1998. Biological and Physical Monitoring. Advanced Appl In Contamination Control. Sept:27-31.
  • Akers, JE. 1997. Environmental Monitoring and Control: Proposed Standards, Current Practices. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 51:36-47.
  • Hertroys, R. et al. 1997. Moving Towards a (Microbiological) Environmental Monitoring Program That Can Be Used to Release Aseptically Produced Pharmaceuticals: a Hypothesis, a Practical Programme and Some Results. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 51:52-59.
  • Mestrandrea, L. – PhRMA Env Monitoring Group. 1997. Microbiological Monitoring of Environmental Conditions for Nonsterile Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. Pharm Technol. 21:58-74.
  • Wilson, James. 1997. Setting Alert/Action Limits for Environmental Monitoring Programs. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 51:161-162.
  • Agalloco, J.. 1996. Qualification and Validation of Environmental Control Systems. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 50:280-289.
  • Whyte, W.. 1996. Cleanroom Mats: an Investigation of Particle Removal. J Inst Environ Sci. Jul/Aug:19-27.
  • Jones, DJ et al. 1995. Environmenal Microbial Challenges to an Aseptic Blow Fill Fill Process-A Practical Study. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 49:226-234.
  • Sinclair, C.S.. 1995. Performance of Bow/Fill/Seal Equip Under Controlled Airborne Microbial Challenges. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 49:294-299.
  • Agalloco, J.. 1993. “Microbiological Evaluation and Monitoring of Cleanroom Environments” (Meeting Summary). PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 47:152-154.
  • Ljungqvist, B et al. 1993. Prestudies for Microbiological Assessment In Clean Zones. Proceedings: Second Int PDA Congress; Validation of Pharmaceuticals and Biopharmaceuticals, Basel Switzerland. 47:103-109.
  • Noble, NH. 1993. Validation of Environmental Monitoring Methods and Levels. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 47:26-28.
  • Cooper, Murray. 1992. Aseptic Processing and Environmental Control. Microbiological Update. 10 .
  • Tetzlaff, R. 1992. Investigational Trends: Clean Room Environmental Monitoring. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 46:206-214.
  • Whyte, W.; N.D.S. Bell, et al. 1992. Suggested Modifications to the Clean Room Air Standards of the Ec Guide to GMP. Pharm Technol. Feb:45-51.
  • Cooper, Murray. 1991. Aseptic Processing and Environmental Control. Microbiological Update. pp. ..
  • FIP Comm on Microbial Purity. 1990. Validation and Environmental Monitoring of Aseptic Processing. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 44:272-277.
  • Pda Environmental Task Force. 1990. Tech Report 13: Fundamentals of a Microbiological Environmental Monitoring Program. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. pp. S3-S16.
  • Cooper, Murray. 1988. Environ Control Topics. Microbiological Update. 6 .
  • Slater, G.J.; D. Johnston. 1988. Microbiological Environmental Monitoring During Sterile Product Manufacture: Adaptation of Methods for a Research Facility. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 42:111-113.
  • Scott, George. 1986. Considerations In Designing the Optimum Clean Room. Pharm Mfg. Feb:14-17.
  • Frieben, William. 1985. The Effect of Cleanroom Design & Mfg Systems On Microbio Contam of Asept Filled Products. J Environ Sci. 28:25-27.
  • Melchert, Helmut. 1985. Examples of Application of the Laminarflow Technology In the Pharmaceutical Industry. Swiss Pharma. pp. 43-48.
  • Frieben, William. 1984. Controlling the Microbio Quality of Nonsterile Pharmaceuticals. Pharm Mfg. Dec:23-26.
  • Grimshaw, George. 1984. Testing and Maintenance of Clean Environments. Manufact Chem. 55:27-29.
  • Russell, M.P., et al. 1984. Computer-Assisted Evaluation of Microbiological Environmental Control Data. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 38:98-102.
  • Frieben, William. 1983. Control of the Aseptic Processing Environment. Amer J Hosp Pharm. 40:1928-1935.
  • Whyte, W. et al. 1982. An Evaluation of the Routes of Bacterial Contamination Occurring During Aseptic Pharmaceutical Manufacturing. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 36:102-108.
  • Levey, J.M., et al. 1981. Hospital Microbial Environment: Need for Continued Surveillance. Med J Aust. pp. 590-592.
  • Raiman, H. 1974. Panel Discussion: Environmental Sampling In an Aseptic Environment. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 28:253-269.
  • Anderson, RL. 1969. Biological Evaluation of Carpeting. Appl Microbiol. 18:180-187.
  • Bassett, PR and CJ DiGrado. 1967. Aerospace Technology and Its Application to Parenteral Operations: Part II. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 21:21-31.
  • Personeus, G.R and PR Bassett. 1967. Aerospace Technology and Its Application to Parenteral Operations: Part I. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 21:12-20.

Air Monitoring

  • Horner, WE et al. 2004. Air- and Dustborne Mycoflora in Houses Free of Water Damage and Fungal Growth. Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:6394-6400.
  • Prigione, V et al. 2004. Development and Use of Flow Cytometry for Detection of Airborne Fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:1360-1365.
  • Temprano, G et al. 2004. Comparative Study of Airborne Viable Particles Assessment Methods In Microbiological Environmental Monitoring. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 58:215-221.
  • Pillai, Suresh, et al. 2002. Bioaerosols From Municipal and Animal Wastes: Background and Contemporary Issues. Can J Microbiol. 48:681-696.
  • Probert, S et al. 2002. Air Sampling for Use In Monitoring Viable and Non-Viable Particulate Air Quality Under Dynamic Operating Conditions of Blow/Fill/Seal Processing. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 56:267-276.
  • Shelton, Brian, et al. 2002. Profiles of Airborne Fungi In Buildings and Outdoor Environments In the US. Appl Environ Microbiol. 68:1743-1753.
  • Duchaine, C, et al. 2001. Comparison of Endotoxin Exposure Assessment by Bioaerosol Impinger and Filter Sampling Methods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 67:2775-2780.
  • Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Ewa Traczyk. 2001. Exposure to Airborne Microorganisms In Polish Saw Mills. Ann Agric Environ Med. 8:71-80.
  • Williams, Roger. 2001. Methods for Integrated Air Sampling and DNA Analysis for Detection of Airborne Fungal Spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 67:2453-2459.
  • Kedjarune, Ureporn; Boonlert Kukiattrakoon. 2000. Bacterial Aerosols In the Dental Clinic: Effect of Time, Position and Type of Treatment. Int Dental Journal. 50:103-107.
  • Kennedy, R., et al. 2000. A New Method to Monitor Airborne Inoculum of the Fungal Plant Pathogens Mycosphaerella Brassicicola and Botrytis Cinerea. Appl Environ Microbiol. 66:2996-3000.
  • Ljungqvist, B and B Reinmuller. 2000. Airborne Viable Particles and Total Number of Airborne Particles: Comparatve Studies of Active Air Studies. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 54:112-116.
  • Miller, J.David; Philip Haisley. 2000. Air Sampling Results In Relation to Extent of Fungal Colonization of Building Materials In Some Water-Damaged Buildings. Indoor Air. 10:146-151.
  • Morris,G.; M.H. Kokki. 2000. Sampling of Aspergillus Spores In Air. J Hosp Infect. 44:81-92.
  • Richardson, M.D.; S. Rennie. 2000. Fungal Surveillance of an Open Haematology Ward. J Hosp Infect. 45:288-292.
  • Spicer, R.; Harry Gangloff. 2000. Limitations In Application of Spearman’s Rank Correlation to Bioaerosol Sampling Data. Aihaj. 61:362-366.
  • Campbell, James. 1999. Environmental Air Sampling to Detect Biological Warfare Agents. Military Medicine. 164:541-542.
  • Nasman, Asa; Goran Blomquist, et al. 1999. Air Sampling of Fungal Spores On Filters. J Environ Monit. 1:361-365.
  • Ljungqvist, Bengt. 1998. Active Sampling of Airborne Viable Particles In Controlled Environments: a Comparative Study of Common Instruments. Eur J Parenteral Sci. 3:59-62.
  • Parks, S.R.; A.M. Bennett. 1998. An Assessment of the Sartorius MD8 Microbiological Air Sampler. J Appl Bacteriol. 80:529-534.
  • Reich, Robert. 1998. Recovering Viable Environmental Particulates. Med Device Diagnost Indust. May:153-156.
  • Reponen, T., et al. 1998. Characteristics of Airborne Actinomycete Spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:3807-3812.
  • Stark, KDC et al. 1998. Detection of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae by Air Sampling with a Nested PCR Assay. Appl Environ Microbiol. 64:543-548.
  • Whyte, W. et al. 1998. Airborne Contamination During Blow-Fill-Seal Pharmaceutical Production. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 52:89-99.
  • Gieray, R.A. et al. 1997. Real-Time Detection of Individual Airborne Bacteria. J Microbiol Meth. 29:191-199.
  • Grinshpun, Sergey. 1997. Effect of Impaction, Bounce and Reaerosolization On the Collection Efficiency of Impingers. Aerosol Sci and Tech. 26:326-342.
  • Heidelberg, J.F. et al. 1997. Effect of Aerosolization On Culturability and Viability of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 63:3585-3588.
  • Henningson, Eva; Lundquist, Margareta. 1997. A Comparative Study of Different Methods to Determine the Total Number and the Survival Ratio of Bacteria In Aerobiological Samples. J Aerosol Sci. pp. 459-469.
  • Lange, Jeffrey, et al. 1997. Application of Flow Cytometry and Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization for Assessment of Exposures to Airborne Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 63:1557-1563.
  • Marshall, William. 1997. Seasonality In Antarctic Airborne Fungal Spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 63:2240-2245.
  • Rosas, I et al. 1997. Escherichia coli In Settled-Dust and Air Samples Collected In Residential Environments In Mexico City . Appl Environ Microbiol. 63:4093-4095.
  • Bohn, William; David S. McKinsey. 1996. The Effect of a Portable Hepa-Filtered Body Exhaust System On Airborne Microbial Contamination In a Conventional Operating Room. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 17:419-422.
  • Mehta, Satish, et al. 1996. Evaluation of Three Portable Samplers for Monitoring Airborne Fungi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62:1835-1838.
  • Terzieva, Silva, et al. 1996. Comparison of Methods for Detection and Enumeration of Airborne Microorganisms Collected by Liquid Impingement. Appl Environ Microbiol. 62:2264-2272.
  • Van Doorne, H.. 1996. Monitoring of Aseptic Drug Preparation by Fall-Out Plates. Ziekenhuisfarmacie. pp. 87-91.
  • Whyte, W.. 1996. In Support of Settle Plates. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 50:201-204.
  • Burge, Harriet. 1995. Aerobiology of the Indoor Environment. Occupational Medicine. 10:27-41.
  • Chang, Ching-Wen. 1995. Factors Affecting Microbiological Colony Count Accuracy for Bioaerosol Sampling and Analysis. Amer Ind Hyg Assoc J. 56:979-986.
  • Ljungqvist, B. and B. Reinmuller. 1995. Hazard Analyses of Airborne Contamination In Clean Rooms-Application of a Method for Limitation of Risks. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 49:239-243.
  • MacNeil, L.. 1995. Molecular Techniques and Their Potential Application In Monitoring the Microbio Quality of Indoor Air. Can J Microbiol. 41:657-665.
  • Stewart, Shelby, et al. 1995. Effect of Impact Stress On Microbial Recovery On an Agar Surface. Appl Environ Microbiol. 61:1232-1239.
  • Stewart, SL et al. 1995. Effect of Impact Stress On Microbial Recovery On an Agar Surface . Appl Environ Microbiol. 61:1232-1239.
  • Alvarez, AJ et al. 1994. Use of Solid-Phase PCR for Enhanced Detection of Airborne Microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 60:374-376.
  • Goodley, J.M.; Y.M. Clayton, et al. 1994. Environmental Sampling for Aspergilli During Building Construction On a Hospital Site. J Hosp Infect. 26:27-35.
  • Huang, Yu-Li. 1994. Fermentation Process Monitoring Through Measurement of Aerosol Release. Biotechnol Prog. 10:32-38.
  • Iwen, Peter; J. Davis, et al. 1994. Airborne Fungal Spore Monitoring In a Protective Environlment During Hospital Construction, and Correlation with an Outbreak of Invasive Aspergillosis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 15:303-306.
  • Juozaitis, a et al. 1994. Impaction Onto a Glass Slide or Agar vs Impingement Into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorgan.. Appl Environ Microbiol. Mar:861-870.
  • Juozaitis, a et al. 1994. Impaction Onto a Glass Slide or Agar versus Impingement Into a Liquid for the Collection and Recovery of Airborne Microorganisms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 60:861-870.
  • Ljungqvist, B and B Reinmuller. 1994. The Biotest Rcs Air Samplers In Unidirectional Flow. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 48:41-44.
  • Thompson, Mark. 1994. Method and Test System for Evaluation of Bioaerosol Samplers. J Aerosol Sci. 25:1579-93.
  • Benbough, JE et al. 1993. Determination of the Collection Efficiency of a Microbial Air Sampler. J Appl Microbiol. 74:170-173.
  • Buttner, Mark; Linda Stetzenbach. 1993. Monitoring Airborne Fungal Spores In an Experimental Indoor Environment to Evaluate Sampling Methods and the Effects of Human Activity On Air Sampling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 59:219-226.
  • Buttner, Mark; Linda Stetzenbach. 1993. Monitoring Airborne Fungal Spores In an Experimental Indoor Environment to Evaluate Sampling Methods and the Effects of Human Activity On Air Sampling (Correction to Mr-1765). Appl Environ Microbiol. 59:1694.
  • Ljungqvist, B and B Reinmuller. 1993. Interaction Between Airmovements and the Dispersion of Contaminants: Clean Zones with Unidirectional Air Flow. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 47:60-69.
  • Hugenholtz, P. et al. 1992. Heterotrophic Bacteria In an Air-Handling System. Appl Environ Microbiol. 58:3914.
  • Jensen, PA et al. 1992. Evaluation of Eight Bioaerosol Samplers Challenged with Aerosols of Free Bacteria. Amer Ind Hyg Assoc J. 53:660-667.
  • Keating, P.. 1992. Performance Testing of Membrane-Based Filters Used In the Filtration of Industrial Fermentation Air. Pharm Tech Int. Mar:46-60.
  • Ljungqvist, B. 1992. Interaction Beween Air Movements and the Dispersion of Contaminants. PDA Int Congress 2/17/92. 46:70-81.
  • Mielke, R. 1992. Proposed Changes to Fed Standarf 209 and Ies-Rp-Cc006. PDA/Ies Joint Conf On Cleanrooms and Microenvironments . 46 .
  • Thorne, PS et al. 1992. Comparison of Bioaerosol Sampling Methods In Barns Housing Swine. Appl Environ Microbiol. 58:2543-2551.
  • Buttner, MP and LD Stetzenbach. 1991. Evaluation of Four Aerbiological Sampling Methods for the Retrieval of Aerosolized Pseudomonas Syringae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 57:1268-1270.
  • Lighthart, B et al. 1991. Trajectory of Aerosol Droplets From a Sprayed Bacterial Suspension. Appl Environ Microbiol. 57:1006-1012.
  • Ljungqvist, Bengt. 1991. Some Aspects On the Use of the Biotest Rocs Air Sampler In Unidirectional Air Flow Testing. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. pp. 177-180.
  • Smid, Tjabe; Erik Schokkin, et al. 1989. Enumeration of Viable Fungi In Occupational Environments: a Comparison of Samplers and Media. Amer Ind Hyg Assoc J. 50:235-239.
  • Howorth, H. 1988. Movement of Airflow, Peripheral Entrapment, and Dispersion of Contaminants. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 42:14-19.
  • Zimmerman, NJ et al. 1987. Comparison of Two Biological Aerosol Sampling Methods. Appl Environ Microbiol. 53:99-104.
  • Whyte, W.. 1986. Sterility Assurance and Models for Assessing Airborne Bacterial Contamination. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 40:188-197.
  • Whyte, W.. 1986. Airborne Bacteria Sampling: the Effect of Dehydration and Sampling Time. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 40:182-188.
  • Sinclair, colin. 1985. Drapes As Barriers to Airborne Bacterial Spores. J Sterile Services Mgmt. June:6-7.
  • Whyte, W.. 1983. A Multicentered Investigation of Clean Air Requirements for Terminally Sterilized Pharmaceuticals. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 37:138-144.
  • Lundholm, IM. 1982. Comparison of Methods for Quantitative Determinations of Airborne Bacteria and Evaluation of Total Viable Counts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 44:179-183.
  • Lembke, LL et al. 1981. Precision of the All-Glass Impinger and the Andersen Microbial Impactor for Air Sampling In Solid-Waste Handling Facilities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 42:222-225.
  • Whyte, W.. 1981. The Casella Slit Sampler or the Biotest Centrifugal Sampler – Which Is the More Efficient. J Hosp Infect. pp. 297-299.
  • Whyte, W.. 1981. Settling and Impaction of Particles Into Containers In Manufacturing Pharmacies. PDA J Parenteral Sci Tech. 35:255-261.
  • Dimmick, RL et al. 1979. Evidence That Bacteria Can Form New Cells In Airborne Particles. Appl Environ Microbiol. 37:924-927.
  • Duberstein, R and G Howard. 1978. Sterile Filtration of Gases: a Bacterial Aerosol Challenge Test. PDA J Parenteral Drug Assoc. 32:192-198.
  • MacIntosh, A. et al. 1978. The Dimensions of Skin Fragments Dispersed Into the Air During Activity. J Hyg Camb. 81:471-479.
  • Pulero, JR et al. 1978. Thermal Resistance of Naturally Occurring Airborne Bacterial Spores. Appl Environ Microbiol. 36:473-479.
  • Noble, W.C. et al. 1976. Quantitative Studies On the Dispersal of Skin Bacteria Into the Air. J Med Microbiol. 9:53-61.
  • White, LA et al. 1975. Improved Large-Volume Sampler for the Collection of Bacterial Cells From Aerosol. Appl Microbiol. 29:335-339.
  • May, KR. 1973. The Collision Nebuliser: Description, Performance and Application. J Aerosol Sci. 4:235.
  • Loughhead, HO and JA Moffett. 1971. Air Sampling Techniques for Monitoring Microbiological Contamination. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 25:261-265.
  • Jost, R and H Fey. 1970. Rapid Detection of Small Numbers of Airborne Bacteria by a Membrane Filter Fluorescent-Antibody Technique. Appl Microbiol. 20:861-865.
  • May, KR. 1969. Prolongation of Microbiological Air Sampling by a Monolayer On Agar Gel. Appl Microbiol. 18:513-514.
  • Coriell, LL and GJ McGarrity. 1967. Elimination of Airborne Bacteria In the Laboratory and Operating Room. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 21:46-54.
  • Hazinski, R. 1967. Microbiological Data: Laminar-Flow versus Non-Laminar-Flow. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 21:208-214.
  • Whitfield WJ. 1967. Microbiological Studies of Laminar Flow Rooms. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 21:37-45.
  • Keitt, Jr, G.W.. 1966. Microbial Content of Hepa Filtered Air. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 20:137-150.
  • May, KR. 1966. Multistage Liquid Impinger. Bacteriol Rev. 30:559-570.
  • Kelso, G. 1965. Panel Discussion: Air Supply and Cross Contamination. PDA Bulletin of Parenteral Drug Assoc. 19:172-183.
  • Noble, WC et al. 1963. The Size Distribution of Airborne Particles Carrying Micro-Organisms. J Hyg Camb. 61:385-391.
  • Wolfe, HW et al. 1959. Sampling Microbiological Aerosols. Public Health Monograph No 60. pp. ..
  • Andersen, AA. 1958. New Sampler for the Collection, Sizing, and Enumeration of Viable Airborne Particles. J Bacteriol. 76:471-484.
  • Kuehne, RW and HM Decker. 1957. Studies On Continuous Sampling of Serratia marcescens Using a Slit Sampler. Appl Microbiol. 5:321.
  • Luckiesh, M et al. 1946. Sampling Devices for Air-Borne Bacteria. J Bacteriol. 52:55-65.

Surface Sampling

  • Bakker, DP et al. 2004. Bacterial Strains Isolated from Different Niches Can Exhibit Different Patterns of Adhesion to Substrata. Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:3758-3760.
  • Buttner, MP et al. 2004. Determination of the Efficacy of Two Building Decontamination Strategies by Surface Sampling with Culture and Quantitative PCR Analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:4740-4747.
  • Buttner, MP et al. 2004. Evaluation of the Biological Sampling Kit (BISKit) for Large-Area Surface Sampling. Appl Environ Microbiol. 70:7040—7045.
  • Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu, et al. 2003. Development of an Adhesive Sheet for Direct Counting of Bacteria On Solid Surfaces. J Microbiol Meth. 53:405-410.
  • Lemmen, Sebastian. 2001. Comparison of Two Sampling Methods for the Detection of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria In the Environment: Moistened Swabs versus RODAC Plates. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 203:245-248.
  • Urzi, Clara et al. 2001. Sampling with Adhesive Tape Strips: an Easy and Rapid Method to Monitor Microbial Colonization On Monument Surfaces. J Microbiol Meth. 44:1-11.
  • Salo, Satu et al. 2000. Validation of the Microbiological Methods Hygicult Dipslide, Contact Plate, and Swabbing In Surface Hygiene Control: a Nordic Collaborative Study. J AOAC Intl. 83:1357.
  • Davidson, C.A.. 1999. Evaluation of Two Methods for Monitoring Surface Cleanliness-ATP Bioluminescence and Traditional Hygiene Swabbing. Luminescence. 14:33-38.
  • Poletti, L.. 1999. Comparative Efficiency of Nitrocellulose Membranes vs. RODAC Plates In Microbial Sampling On Surfaces. J Hosp Infect. 41:195-201.
  • Barrett, Geoffrey. 1998. Control of Foot and Wheel-Borne Contamination by Polymeric Flooring. Pharm Tech Eur. 10:18-23.
  • PDA. 1998. Technical Report 29 – Points to Consider for Cleaning Validation. PDA J Pharm Sci Tech. 52:1-23.
  • ISO. 1996. Sterilization of Medical Devices-Estimation of the Population of Micro Organisms On Product – Part I. European Committee for Standardization. Feb:1-24.
  • Vincent-Betts, Phill. 1996. Getting the Surfaces Right In the Clean Room. Manufact Chem. Mar:14-15.
  • Dey, B.P.. 1995. Comparison of Dey & Engley (D/E) Neutralizing Medium to Letheen Medium and Standard Methods Medium for Recovery of Staph aureus From Sanitized Surfaces. J Indust Microbiol. 14:21-25.
  • Eginton, PJ. 1995. Quantification of the Ease of Removal of Bacteria From Surfaces. J Indust Microbiol. 15:305-310.
  • Hirsch, P. et al. 1995. Methods for the Study of Rock Inhabiting Microorganisms – a Mini Review. J Microbiol Meth. 23:143-167.
  • Jacques, Marie-Agnes et al. 1995. A Review of Issues Related to the Quantification of Bacteria From the Phyllosphere. FEMS. 18:1-14.
  • Lombardo, Silvia. 1995. Development of Surface Swabbing Procedures for a Cleaning Validation Program In a Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing Facility. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 48:513-519.
  • Sterflinger, Katja et al. 1995. Precision Replicas of Microbially Contaminated Surfaces for Optical and Sem-Analyses. J Microbiol Meth. 23:301-308.
  • Wollenzien, U. et al. 1995. On the Isolation of Microcolonial Fungi Occurring On and In Marble and Other Calcareous Rocks. The Sci of the Total Environment. 167:287-294.
  • Deschenes, P. 1992. Environmental Monitoring of Viables: Surface Testing the Program and Its Application. PDA/Ies Joint Conf On Cleanrooms and Microenvironments . 46:79-91.
  • LeBlanc, D. 1992. New Methods for Cleanroom Surfaces. PDA/Ies Joint Conf On Cleanrooms and Microenvironments . 46:115-135.
  • Mittelman, Marc. 1992. Multipurpose Laminar-Flow Adhesion Cells for the Study of Bacterial Colonization and Biofilm Formation. Harwood Academic Pub Gmbh. 6:39-51.
  • Smith, James M.. 1992. A Modified Swabbing Technique for Validation of Detergent Residues In Clean-In-Place Systems. Pharm Technol. pp. 60-66.
  • Hambraeus, A. et al. 1990. Skin Sampling-Validation of a Pad Method and Comparison with Commonly Used Methods. J Hosp Infect. 16:19-27.
  • Whyte, W.. 1989. Methods for Calculating the Efficiency of Bacterial Surface Sampling Techniques. J Hosp Infect. 13:33-41.
  • Speers, J, S.J. Lewis, and A. Gilmour. 1984. Bacteriological Sampling of Glass, Rubber and Stainless Steel Pipe Sections. J Dairy Res. 51:547-555.
  • Yamayoshi, T.. 1984. Surface Sampling Using a Single Swab Method. J Hosp Infect. 5:386-390.
  • Buggy, B. et al. 1983. Comparison of Methods for Recovery of Clostridium Difficile From an Environmental Surface. J Clin Microbiol. 18:348-352.
  • Center for Disease Control. 1981. Cleaning, Disinfection and Sterilization of Hospital. In: Infection Control In Long-Term Facilities. 2:138-144.
  • Craythorn, J et al. 1980. Membrane Filter Contact Technique for Bacteriological Sampling of Moist Surfaces. J Clin Microbiol. Aug:250-255.
  • Richard, J.. 1980. Observations On the Value of a Swab Technique for Determining the Bacteriological State of Milking Equipment Surfaces. J Appl Bacteriol. 49:19-27.
  • Niskanen, a and MS Pohja. 1977. Comparative Studies On the Sampling and Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Surfaces by the Contact Plate and Swab Methods. J Appl Bacteriol. 42:53-63.
  • Schiemann, D.A.. 1976. Evaluation of Neutralizers In RODAC Media for Microbial Recovery From Disinfected Floors. J Environ Health. 38:401-404.
  • Ayliffe, GAJ et al . 1975. Comparson of Two Methods of Assessing the Removal of Total Organisms and Pathogens from the Skin. J Hyg Camb. 75:259-274.
  • Krizek, T.J. and C.R. Martin. 1975. Evolution of Quantitative Bacteriology In Wound Management. Wound Management. 130:579-584.
  • Raahave, D.. 1975. Experimental Eval of the Velvet Pad Rinse Technique As a Microbio Sampling Method. Acta Path Microbiol Scand. 83:416-424.
  • Raahave, Dennis. 1975. New Technique for Quantitative Bacteriological Sampling of Wounds by Velvet Pads: Clinical Sampling Trial. J Clin Microbiol. 2:277-280.
  • Baldock, J.D.. 1974. Microbiobiological Monitoring of the Food Plant: Methods to Assess Bacterial Contamination On Surfaces. J Milk Food Technol. 37:1974.
  • Petersen, NJ and WW Bond. 1969. Microbiological Evaluation of the Vacuum Probe Surface Sampler. Appl Microbiol. 18:1002-1006.
  • Bruch, Mary. 1968. Improved Method for Pouring RODAC Plates. Appl Microbiol. 16:1427-1428.
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